ABOUT PANCREATIC CANCER
ABOUT PANCREATIC CANCER
PANCREATIC CANCER IN THE LIMELIGHT
pancreatic cancer has gained attention from the diagnoses of several prominent figures, including Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, who was diagnosed in 2003 and died Oct. 5, 2011. Jobs had an islet cell neuroendocrine tumor, a rare form of the disease. U.S Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader GInsburg and actor Patrick Swayze have also faced pancreatic cancer. Swayze died in 2009. the lifetime risk of pancreatic cancer is about 1 in 65.
WHAT IS PANCREAS?
The pancreas is a 6-inch-long spongy tube-shaped organ located in the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. it has two major functions in the body: to make digestive juices (enzymes) that help the intestines break down food and to produce hormones including insulin that regulates how the body uses sugar ans starch.
pancreatic cancer occurs when malignant (cancerous) cells grow, divide and spread in the tissues of the pancreas.
Color enhanced, magnified view of a pancreatic cancer cell
pancreatic cancer is called a silent disease because the symptoms typically do not show up in the early stages, but as the cancer grows and spreads, pain often develops in the upper abdomen and sometimes spreads to the back. the pain may become worse after the person eats or lies down. other symptoms may include jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue and weakness.
CAUSES OF PANCREATIC CANCER
Although the exact cause of pancreatic cancer is not known, smoking is the main risk factor, with smokers at least 2 times more likely yo have the disease than non-smokers. diabetes is also linked to pancreatic cancer since it's a risk factor, and it can also be a symptom of the disease. Age is also related with the disease usually striking after age 45. other risks include chronic pancreatitis and cirrhosis of the liver, family history of pancreatic cancer, high fat diet, obesity and lack of exercise may also play a part.
DIAGNOSING PANCREATIC CANCER
The challenge of this diseases is finding it early. A doctor cannot see or feel a tumor during a routine exam. To help make the diagnosis and determine the most appropriate treatment, imaging tests are performed such as ultra scan, MRI or CT scan to view pictures of the abdomen and determine the extent of the problem.
There are many methods of treatment depending on the extent of the spread of the cancer, they include the following
- SURGERY: Surgery can cure the cancer if it has not spread past the pancreas. since side effects depend on the extent of the surgery, the tumor is removes leaving as much of the normal pancreas intact as possible. unfortunately, with pancreatic cancer, the malignant cells usually have spread past the pancreas at the point of diagnosis. surgery still may be performed, even if the tumor is too large to remove, the surgery would involve procedures to help lessen some of the symptoms and prevent certain problems related to the size of the cancerous mass.
- RADIATION THERAPY: this uses high -powered radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiation is usually given five days a week for several weeks or months, this schedule helps to protect normal tissue by spreading out the total dose of radiation. Radiation is also being studied as a way to kill cancer cells that remain in the area after surgery. Radiation therapy can help relive pain or digestive problems caused by large cancerous masses.
- CHEMOTHERAPY: this uses drugs to destroy cancer cells ans stop them from growing or multiplying. Treatment may consist of just one drug or combination of drugs, it may be given by mouth or injection. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body, making chemotherapy a good choice for cancer that has spread. it is also useful after surgery to kill any cancer cells left behind.
- TARGETED THERAPY: Newer drugs in the market has the ability to attack specific parts of the cancer cells. Targeted therapies appears to have fewer side effects then chemotherapy and are less harmful to normal cells. targeted therapy is currently being used for treatment of pancreatic cancer.
- IMMUNOTHERAPY: this is also called biological therapy, it is a new anticancer treatment that aims to boost a person's immune system to fight disease. immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer is being actively researched along with the investigation into vaccines that arm the immune system to attack cancer.
- PALLIATIVE THERAPY:this is used to ease symptoms and manage pain regardless of the stage of the disease or the need for other therapies. the goal of palliative care is to improve quality of life not just in the body, but in the mind and the spirit. while palliative therapies are clearly appropriate at the very advanced stages of the disease, they also help if given in tandem with other cancer treatments still working to fight the disease.
Although there is no definite action one can take to prevent pancreatic cancer, avoiding the risk factors that can be controlled is important.
- Quit smoking
- Eat healthfully, ensure your diet is low in fat.
- Adopt a regular exercise routine, since exercise can help prevent diabetes and obesity which is a risk factor.
To live with pancreatic cancer is not easy, a support system is critical to help cope with the emotional and practical aspects of this disease. This organizations exist to help navigate the day-to day treatment issues and the worries about the future.