Protecting your Water supply
PROTECTING YOUR WATER SUPPLY
Rain and snow are the original sources of all our drinking water. Raindrops are formed from the heavy vapour arising from the sea. As clouds pass over the land, they condense into drops of rain or flakes of snow, depending upon the temperature of the atmosphere. We are all familiar with the fact that a rainstorm clears the air, washing it clean and free from dust and smoke.
Raindrops are usually free from germs, although they may contain a little dust and perhaps a few harmless microbes. Trouble starts when the raindrops strike the surface of the earth. The rain that collects on cultivated fields, farmyards and city streets contains many different kinds of gems, some of which are harmful to man, many of these gems have come from the digestive organs of animals and human beings and may cause serious intestinal diseases.
But the trouble is not always with the water that falls onto the ground. People who use tanks and cisterns must also be careful. Roof water may be badly contaminated with germs from dust blowing up from the street. There is also the problem of germs from the droppings of birds. Tank or cistern water should always be boiled or sterilized
The water from ponds and lakes is always contaminated. Much of this water may have washed down from street and highways, or from fields contaminated by human or animal excreta. Even though this water may appear sparkling and clear, it often contains harmful germs such that cause typhoid and dysentery. Also it may be infested with intestinal parasites, liver flukes, hook-worms and amoeba.
The most polluted water of all may be the rivulet rushing down a hillside just after a heavy shower of rain. This is particularly true following a long spell of dry weather.
When rain strikes the ground, it divides and travels in two different routes toward the ocean. Part of the water remains on the surface and flows into small steams, then into larger rivers headed for the sea. This surface water is always badly contaminated.
The other part of the rainfall penetrates the surface soil. It supplies the needs of the plant world. This water flows underground toward some steam or pond and by this means some of it finally reaches the sea. Sandy soil allows the water to penetrate freely. Clay and rock may prevent further penetration, so that the water remains at certain level or strata. If the side of a hill cuts across one of these barriers, the water may seep out in the form of a spring. When we sink a well, we tap these same underground sources of water.
Most spring water is pure and free from germs. In passing through the different layers of the earth, the gems either die or are largely filtered out. Well water from tube-wells and other types of close wells is generally pure also, provided there is no surface contamination near the vicinity of the well itself. People living in the country should take great care to keep their own water-supplies free from contamination. Animal wastes on the surface of the ground are a menace. To guard against this, the mouth of the well should be set at a level higher than where the animals are, preferably some distance away from them. This will help to prevent pollution from animal dropping or human carelessness
PURIFYING YOUR OWN DRINKING WATER
If there is any question about the purity of your own drinking water, you should boil it. This is a basic precautionary measure. Water which looks pure may actually be full of germs. If you have your own well, you can perhaps have the water tested by an expert from the public health department in your area.
City water-supplies are not always safe, especially during the drier times of the year. Boiling the water for one minute will destroy most harmful germs. That is why it is generally safer when travelling to order hot drinks instead of cold ones. But wherever you are, remember that the purest water can easily be polluted unless it is kept in clean covered vessels.
One of the best chemicals for purifying drinking water is calcium hypochlorite. This is now supplied in ampoules, a one-half gramme ampoule being sufficient to purify thirty-six gallons of water. This is the process referred to as chlorination. Any good household bleaching solution will destroy bacteria. They all contain sodium hypochlorite. Add just ten drops of the bleaching solution to each gallon of water and wait a half hour before using it. One quart of the bleaching solution will purify 1,500 gallons of water. These bleaching solution are simple and inexpensive. They are also quiet safe.
WATER THE LIQUID OF LIFE
Water is truly the liquid of life nothing else can ever take its place. Water enters into every reaction within the human body. More than two-third of your body is composed of water in some form. Every day your kidney filters between fifteen and twenty gallons of water for you. Most fluid is taken back into the blood stream again. Only a small fraction passes out as urine or perspiration. This excreted water carriers away the waste chemicals your body no longer needs
The person who does not drink six to eight glasses of fluid daily may soon have trouble with his internal organs. He may suffer from constipation and other digestive complaints. Stones may form in his kidneys and bladder, and severe urinary infections may result. The lack of sufficient water also places an extra burden on his heart. Everyone who desires to remain strong and heathy must have an abundant supply of pure water each day.
In very warm climates six to eight glasses of water a day may not be enough. A very simple way of checking the adequacy of intake is to observe the colour of the urine. If it is darker than a very light yellow, one needs to drink more water than he has been drinking
Related Post viewed by other