Rubber farming is very very lucrative because , it is a raw produce commonly exported to other countries and it is of industrial and commercial importance.Rubber is the only popular latex crop which produces white sticky liquid used in plastic industries.Here are things you need to know about rubber farming in order to start.
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Climatic and Soil Requirements.
Rubber requires a temperature of 24degreeC to 29degreeC, rainfall of 180cm-300cm per annum, bright sunshine , and a deep loamy soil which is rich in hummus and slightly acidic .
Method of propagation.
By seeds and budded seedlings(vegetative propagation).
Pre-nursery:August - October.
Nursery :Nine months later.
Field :March-June the following year.
Pre nursery:3cm by 3cm
Nursery:60cm by 60cm
Field :4m by 6m
Planting of cover crops
It takes three to six years after planting
The process of harvesting rubber i.e , collecting of the latex is called tapping .A diagonal cut is made 60cm above the ground on the bark of a tree with a tapping knife . The latex is collected with a cup below . Tapping is done early in the morning between 7 to 10am and for every two to three days. The latex from all the crops are collected together from all the rubber trees in the evening.
Tools and materials required for tapping are , tapping knife,spout ,collecting cup ,cup hanger ,collecting buckets,churns , collecting tanks, anti- coagulants e.g sodium sulphate or ammonia.
Processing of rubber
Processing of rubber
The latex is collected in processing tank .A little water is added to dilute it . Formic or acetic acid is added to effect the coagulation of the latex.Then the coagulated latex is cut into pieces , washed and put into rolling machine to get thin rubber sheets .The rubber sheets are then washed and treated with paranitrophenol solution to prevent mould growth .The rubber sheets are dried and put into a smoke house for further drying so that ribbed smoke sheets (R.S.S) rubber produced .Talcum powder is applied to prevent the rubber sheets from sticking together and for proper storage.The rubber sheets are either purchased and sent to the port or to the factories e.g (tyre , plastic industries etc).
Pest of rubber
Spray with insecticides.
Diseases of rubber
Tapping panel disease
White and red rot disease
Disinfect tapping knives
Diseased trees should be felled and destroyed
Spray the trees with copper fungicides.
Thats all you need to know about rubber farming . Its a great source of income